Nikkitoha, the day-to-day events, it is a record of such to some extent continuously paper. From what is treated as a mere record until shall be treated as the literature, its contents may vary. From those long-term, such as marked for the life of a person, a journey, a certain duties, to those of only marked short-term between such a case, period-amount also vary, regardless of the Western-Oriental, I exist worldwide.
One of the main opportunity that diary is written, there is a record of the journey (this is a summary be and travel writing in book). Any work, be it a private Shoyo, and it is served to the war, the contents of the special event, experience, diary as those that describe the reminder was written. Caesar of ancient Rome wrote the course of the Gallic conquest "Gallic War" is the famous example.
In Japan, such as the entourage diary of envoys, ancient tradition of the journey of the diary (Journey), the world-renowned travelogue as "Nitto Guho pilgrimage line Symbol" of Ennin, is born in the 9th century.
Heian period, in Japan at the end of the 9th century, the original of the change of state system, dynasty nobles for the ritual of the political affairs, and outside Symbol of diary such as national record begin to create a separate private diary. Based on the epidemic of diary creation of this nobility, it would be considered memoirs diary literature of women have been born. In the background, maturation of the pseudonym literature, are observed, such as deepening of introspective thinking by Pure Land Buddhism of development. "Dragonfly diary" as including "Tosa Diary" of Ki no Tsurayuki, "Murasaki Shikibu Diary", "Izumi Shikibu Diary", "Sarashina diary", "Sanuki no Suke Nikki" female diary and of the Heian era, such as "Ben no Naishi diary", such as "Izayoi diary" is a typical example.
Many of the diary of male nobles It is written in classical Chinese, it is also called the Chinese classics diary as terms of history, newly conceptualized recent years the diary that was created as a precedent of the pool or user manual for these rituals as "Dynasty diary" doctrine to be issued will have (bibliography; Matsuzono 2006), is to be naming and easily dynasty diary the diary literature of the Heian period there is a problem.
Until the Middle Ages, even diary that had been almost limited to the dynasty nobles (aristocrats), monks, and upon entering the early modern period from the end of the Middle Ages, hierarchically diversified, increases in each stage to quantitative.
When you enter the modern, and the impact of such individualism of the West, also come out that it was written in order to take a private personal secret. And the like Ishikawa Takuboku of "Roman alphabet diary". Entity I novel or even a fiction, sometimes renting a diary format as a means of expression.
Such as exchange diary and class diary, such as junior high school, I considered to be overlapped with the letter of the world. Today, in rental diary site of Weblog (blog) or on the Internet, many of the diary are written. For these new diary, there is a discussion from the viewpoint of information ethics, would require a new analysis.
Japanese and diary
Japan is, in large quantities from the oldest time in the world, and will create a high-quality diary, is a country that has been left behind. While  For this reason a matter of course, diary as one of the historical materials that can not be is essential in order to elucidate the history of Japan, has been important, such as with ancient documents that have been left many from ancient as well. However, just because of their diary that has been left over from ancient times, and cultural-historical positioning in Japan, say or have been to clear things like social history functionality, it is not the case.
Such opinion is, for example, "Tosa Nikki" and "dragonfly diary" the difference is who many objections as an example such as. Have been made quite a number of research about certainly have been recognized as a classic, of these Heian era diary. However, these few prominent diary, as is well known authors not intended went noted with a simultaneity, is one that has been finished as a work time in which some later. In addition, it should not only a small part of the diary that have been created during the same era, a number of diary group of unnamed was Hanahiraka these works is present as these soil.
KawaSakari Kozo in the sentence "For diary", "I think we were good to keep a diary, when you read my old diary" is, many of the "my life by the it has stated that Ru to reflect "the thing. In addition, diary three of conversation as a man of theory, or "conversation with oneself, conversations with friends and relatives, the conversation with the great creator," the description an example for the case of an individual as being made up of have tried.
Japanese is said well with the likes diary. For example, there is a diary professional publishers, decorate the storefront wide variety of diary of the bookstore when it comes to the end of it is that Japan only. In this regard, in the "thought and Introduction of the diary" by talk of Hidetoshi Michitaro Kato Tada, personal conversation that the poor and as a reason that, unlike in Western countries, and that there is no choice for the front of the God you sleep at night the examples are however, cause is considered to be in a deeper place rather than such a superficial ones. The most impressive pointed out in this regard, is that Donald Keene is that in the second World War in Japanese soldier's diary (US forces have been touched in the mechanism of "Japanese over that seen in the hundred generations of Kakaku over diary" to put it is a story of forbidden had been). Here is one of the conclusions that Keane was reached the diary of Japanese soldiers that have been abandoned on the battlefield from translating duties of experience, the act of attaching a "diary, too occupy a strong position in the Japanese tradition that are ".
The diary in Japanese history
It's cited as typical of pre-modern Japan of historical materials is, is a records and centered on the old documents and diary.
In the oldest of personal diary on record in Japan, and due to Iki no Hakatoko that went to Tang as envoys ("Chronicles of Japan" Hitoshi Tomorrow Koki) and are but are, logbook or of the duties of the report as envoys, strongly may have been created as a material, those who are not considered a personal diary appears to be good. The phenomenal, in the 10th century after the Rikkokushi compilation of got extinct, diary of the Emperor and aristocracy appeared, but seem to have "occurred", it will be assumed to be going back to a little more before the era . Ritual of affairs and events of the court proceeds, while to record them in public diary, such as Tenjo diary and outside Symbol diary, between the operation and led courtiers and royalty us them in position such as above Sir, gradually it is considered that went habitual, as the initial one, for example, royal diary, such as "吏部 Kings" of the Emperor of the diary and Shigeaki Prince, such as "three generations your Ki" of Uda-Daigo Murakami 3 generations , of Chuhei Fujiwara "SadaShinKo Symbol", "SeiMakoto Oyake-ki" of Fujiwara no Saneyori, the diary of "nine calendar" (Kujo Tonogo Symbol) such as senior aristocrat known of Fujiwara no Morosuke. The peace since the middle, regent home and Miya-ryu-Kajū-ji flow Fujiwara Mr. Ono, has left a lot of diary from generation to generation and Koto-ryu Taira, the diary as a useful article was a note for the original ceremony, 12 Once in century diary of "house" to (home-mentioned formation), a further function is added, it is considered that now be described by a number of nobles, including medium-junior officers humans. Such as a house carrying the generations in the middle and junior officer people of pedigree family head of house-mentioned specifically referred to as the "diary of a house" ("Imakagami". Also, in fact even in the Imperial Family and regent house of "Diary home there was an element of as ").
Many of the aristocrats of the diary of the title handed down today are those that are attached to the death, author himself "I Symbol" (such as Fujiwara no Saneyori "SeiMakoto Oyake-ki" Fujiwara Shibo "Spring Symbol") and "Koyomi-ki" (such as Fujiwara no Sanesuke "small right", by which wrote a diary to ground Note calendar) were many examples referred to as such. The name of his own naming the diary is transmitted to posterity, Emperor Go-Nara "Tencho Collection" and Chu-in TsuShigeru "garbage Symbol", which is a few such. Many are or overlaid by taking a Henbo of True name of the author, which combined the posthumous name-government post-stratified-residence and these are, is was named by future generations of people. Thus, even cases where more than one name to one of the diary used many, from the fact that Fujiwara no Sanesuke of the diary was he "" Ono Miyake "of" oeuf (minister of the right) "", "small right" - coexist is named "No-fu-ki", it is even more "SeiMakoto Oyake-ki" of aka "Mizugokoro Symbol" grandfather-JitsuYoriyuki, also referred to as the "continued Mizugokoro Symbol". In addition, diary of Nobunori Taira was taken from the polarization of his True name "person cars Symbol" (Shin → people Han → car) and a combination of one character of Hyobu Sir government positions and True name "Heihan-ki", further the designation of meaning "Hollein Taira living in the (district name)" "Hirahora-ki" is Heisho.
At the time, the paper for was valuable, diary or described in the calendar of the margins and the back of such Guchu calendar, example that was used the back of the paper that became Hogu (Shihai document) often. In addition, examples as those utilizing this well, was seeking to save both the song and the diary on the back of the papers of their own waka-brick wrote the diary as "Mi 聞日 Symbol" of Fushimi MiyaSada formed Prince there are examples that reflect their diary about the event on the back side of the exchange has been letters and documents in relation to the events as "Ken-nai Symbol" of or Marikoji Tokibo. In addition, (such as "after Nijo nurse communication Symbol", "Heihan-ki") example that the author of the diary were fair copy to organize anew document made at a later date also. Although offspring were also examples of Shosha-fair copy diary, although if the portion that case does not appear critical and can is omitted, often be faithfully Shosha the original, difference between manuscripts does not greatly. It is also possible to create a separate book author or offspring are called and can create inventory to retrieve the contents of the diary and divided into each field "category". It is to be noted that there are events that would whole volume is turned into waste paper in order to Fujiwara no Kintō grandson had to cut and paste the original when you create a "class" of "SeiMakoto Oyake-ki" of Fujiwara no Saneyori, cousin of Fujiwara no Sanesuke but there is a story that was furious. At that time, you can create a once manuscripts at the time "category" created, is the common sense is to cut and paste the manuscripts, Oyakenin but is was infuriated Jitsushi because it was not damage the original not comply with it, in fact is cut diary is-made and is seen scroll or pledge ("Kohitsugire") are also present, it is said was not even less diary that is dissipated in the process.
The Heian period also appeared diary there were monks of aristocrats and deep connection, diary of temples and shrines is to generate Once in the Middle Ages. As the temple of the diary "Toji Executive Diary," "Mahayana Institute temples chores Symbol", "Tamon Institute diary", as the shrine of the diary, etc. "Tsuruoka shrine Diary", "Kasuga-sha Record", "Gion executive diary" . In addition samurai diary also appear in the Kamakura era, "Azuma Kagami" is thought to have been a record collection was made by assembling a diary of such Gokenin in recent years. Although the samurai of the diary is the number transmitted than that of the aristocrats and monks less, parents Ninagawa of the Muromachi era "home diary" and Sagara Seinin "Seinin-ki", Sho Odate "Odate Tsunekyo diary", Edo from the Warring States period are transmitted also excellent diary such as Uwai Satokane of over the age initial "Uwai Satokane Date book" and Masakage Umezu "Masakage Umezu diary".
Once in the Edo era, customs Write a diary also between the scholars and the common people (such as merchants and headman) is spread, it came to be left many with samurai diary.